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Access. Roads and/or bridges that allow the entrance and exit of the stations.

Accident. It is any sudden event occurring on the occasion or as a consequence of the administration, operation and maintenance of the Metro and Cable system that negatively affects the safety of the physical facilities, equipment or the environment, causing injury, functional disruption, illness or death to users and/or interested parties.

Acoustic signal. Sound indications that are presented when there is a malfunction in the system, to alert something or warn of a situation.

Alarm plan. Describes the departments within the company and external relief agencies that should be aware of an incident or operating accident occurring in the system in order to provide support or be alert to its evolution.

Alarm. A luminous or acoustic signal emitted by an electronic or electrical device. It is used to announce irregularities in equipment or to control intruders or unauthorized persons entering a site considered critical.

Aluminothermic welding. Welding process with metal filler. It consists of covering the ends of the parts to be joined with a mold, preheating them and pouring in the molten metal obtained by aluminothermic reaction.

Anti-slip equipment. Device to prevent axles from locking during braking and slipping during acceleration. By comparing the speed between the axles, it detects which one is blocked. It is composed of electronic equipment, tachometric sensors and pneumatic valves.

ATO (Automatic train operation). Equipment in charge of executing the indications made by the ATP equipment such as: braking, speed reduction and acceleration. The option of automatic train operation is contemplated, but not installed for Medellin Metro System, therefore, train driving is semi-automatic (M/A).

ATP (Automatic train protection). Information processing equipment installed on the trains that calculates the distances traveled and possible irregularities in the track circuit information.

Attribute. Component of the general characteristic of the service, which specifies the service, for example (Speed: door opening time, travel time, train frequency, transfer time or train synchronization).

Authorized overtaking of a signal. Action taken by the driver when passing the train at a signal that is in permissive aspect, or in stop aspect with an authorization from the line operator or yard operator.

Automatic control (MA). Function of the signaling technique for route selection. The route is established when the train occupies two track circuits before the destination signal.

Automatic coupling. Device that automatically couples train units, consisting of mechanical, electrical and pneumatic coupling.

Automatic formation of itineraries. Automatic establishment of the appropriate position of each track element to create a safe route for a train.

Auxiliary train. A train derailment train, consisting of a locomotive and a platform equipped with the necessary elements to derail a train.

Auxiliary vehicle driver. Employee authorized to drive self-propelled trains.

Auxiliary vehicle. Vehicle with or without its own traction used for the construction and maintenance of the system's installations and equipment.

Axle. Cylindrical steel piece on which the wheels, axleboxes and transmission end elements of a train are mounted.


Ballast. Irregular crushed stone on which the sleepers and rails of the track are laid, as well as for drainage, noise and vibration reduction and support of the train track.

Balona. Equipment that is part of the secondary pneumatic suspension of the trains, which prevents vibrations in the bogie from passing to the vehicle body, thus providing comfort to the user.

Bat. A spoon-shaped tool that introduces the ballast under the sleepers, moving it to the desired level, and can be manual, mechanical or automatic.

Batting. The action of introducing the ballast under the sleepers with a tamp, giving it an adequate consolidation, occupying the stone the minimum possible volume.

Bent plate. Element in charge of not allowing the horizontal displacement of the rail, located on the sleeper.

Blast. The action of spreading sand on the rails in order to increase friction and thus prevent the wheels from slipping; it is performed by some auxiliary vehicles with their own traction, such as: track cars and locomotives.

Blocked section. Part of track on which other trains are not allowed to enter from a return facility to the next return facility due to problems in a train or in the physical installations.

Bogie carrier. Chassis that holds axles and supports the train body.

Bogie motor. Chassis that holds engines and axles, and also supports the train body.

Bogie washing pit. Excavation located inside a vault and provided with the necessary equipment to wash the bogies.

Bogie. Set of two pairs of wheels mounted on two axles, close, parallel and solidary, supporting a car, an auxiliary vehicle or a platform.

Bracket. Pipe-shaped arms protruding from the mast to support the supporting wires and the catenary contact wire.

Brake cylinder. Pneumatic element that by pressure difference actuates the brake shoes for the braking of the trains. It is located on the bogies.

Brake shoe. A piece of resistant material that is applied against a part of a train wheel to slow it down.

Brake skid. Electromagnetic brake device, located in the lower part of the bogie. It allows braking by the effect of electromagnetic attraction with the rail.

Braking curve. Graph representing the braking distance of the train, which can be measured in space/time.

Braking distance. The distance traveled from the moment the train starts braking until it stops, or until it reaches the desired reduced speed, applying a deceleration such that users do not suffer discomfort or alarm.

Braking resistance. A set of metal parts responsible for dissipating, in the form of heat, the energy generated during braking and which cannot be returned by the catenary. It is found in the passenger train and in the locomotive.

Braking test. Verification by Drivers of the correct operation of the brakes, both in passenger trains and auxiliary vehicles, as described in the driving manuals.

Breakdown. A defect that prevents the correct operation of a piece of equipment or train. Degree of failure of a train.

Broken train. A train that has one or more faults that prevent it from continuing on line to provide commercial service or to perform maintenance work due to technical and safety reasons.

Bumber. A metal structure with a special coating located at the end of a siding, which can be moved a given distance to absorb the forces of a train colliding with it, thus preventing the vehicle from leaving the track.

Buzzing: An electrical device that generates an acoustic alarm to announce something, usually faults or emergency stop buttons.  It consists of a monochord (single-string, uniform) sound.


Cabin. Each of the vehicles that make up the cable transport system.

Cable. Mechanical element (carrier - tractor) arranged in such a way as to transmit its movement to the vehicles attached to it and, at the same time, ensure its support.

Catenary contact area. Surface of the contact wire on which the pantograph makes friction to take the power supply for the train equipment.

Catenary inspection vehicle. Auxiliary vehicle equipped with diesel engine, mobile platform with the necessary equipment to check the condition of the catenary and repair faults.

Catenary regulation. Set the catenary according to its height, zigzag, and its counterweight tension.

Catenary section. Longitudinal section into which the catenary feed is divided.

Catenary. Longitudinal suspension power line, through which passenger trains collect electric current to feed the traction motors by means of pantographs.

Central control station (PCC). Place from where the development of the system operation is controlled and supervised.

Centralized track switch. Track switch operated by remote control from an interlocking, Central Control Station (PCC) or Control Tower (TRC)

Chopper. Power electronic device that allows to control the speed of the train motors by means of DC power supply. Each motor car has a chopper to control its 4 motors.

Circuit board. Insulating element used to maintain the zigzag of the catenary contact wire.

Circulation number. Number assigned to trains according to a timetable to identify them on the Line.

Clear passage gauge. Free space that allows movement without hindrance and without danger to trains. It is also known as dynamic gauge.

Clearance train. A train that makes a run prior to commencing commercial service with a gear in sight to ensure that the track, catenary and the system in general are in operating condition.

Closed-circuit television (CCTV). Electronic system installed in places, areas, sectors, offices, etc., for visual control of user flow and security situations that may arise there.

Colission. Collision of one train with another, with a railway installation or other objects.

Collective call. Communication established between a calling station and all interlocutors in the area.

Commercial operation. Transportation of users in passenger trains on the lines according to a schedule.

Complaints. Complaint made by the client due to dissatisfaction with the service quality guarantee, expressed through non-compliance with one or more of the characteristics of the public transport service or due to the actions of the personnel.

Concertina. Steel wire, flat and barbed, installed in a circular shape on the mesh or wall and used to prevent intruders on the track and in Metro system stations.

Contact wire wear. Deterioration of the contact wire surface caused by friction between the pantograph and the wire.

Contingency plan. All those actions foreseen in the system to continue providing the service under special conditions.

Contingency. Special event that may affect the normal development of the operation.

Control desk (Train). Driver's desk located in the train control cabins where all the control, signaling and alarm components necessary for train service are located.

Control desk (Turnstile). Control equipment located at the points of sale of the stations, allows to command and control the entry barriers (turnstiles) that are connected to it.

Control system. These are all the elements that make it possible to supervise and operate the installation in a safe and controlled manner.

Convoy. A series of units or auxiliary vehicles coupled together, which are pulled or pushed by the same train.

Coordinated jacks. Equipment consisting of four mechanical lifts used to lift a car and perform maintenance work.

Couple. Coupling two or more trains.

Crane bridge. Bridge-shaped crane, mounted on rails, which allows its movement and facilitates the maneuvering of heavy equipment, it is used in the overhaul shop and in the general warehouse.

Crossing with the National Railroads (FCN). Site where the National railroad crosses the Medellin Metro System link road.

Cuadradillo. Key with a quadrangular section used by operating and maintenance personnel to open and close the doors of cabinets and cabins of trains.

Customer contract. Expression of the rights and duties of both the Metro Company and the customers, in relation to the provision of public transportation services. Said contract is expressed through the User's Regulations.


Daily energy consumption. Daily system power consumption.

Danger to the operation. Any event that influences the safety of train operation or circulation in such a way that it may lead to an operating accident.

Dead man's device. Button installed on the operating lever of passenger trains and in the cab of locomotives, which, when pressed, guarantees the driver's service capacity in manual driving mode. In case it is not pressed when pulling, it causes an emergency braking of the vehicle.

Derailer. A device that routes trains off the track to avoid collisions or protect the flanks of a route.

Derailment. The action of a train going off the rails.

Descent to the track. The action of descending to the track at a station from the platform to retrieve a fallen object or to perform an inspection or maintenance. This requires authorization from the Central Control Station (CCP).

Desembridar. Remove or loosen the flanges that secure the end of one rail to another.

Destination indicator. Luminous panel located above the windshield of the motor cars, to indicate the final station of the train.

Destination. Place where a train or a user must arrive. End site of the itinerary.

Dielectric. Material whose electrical resistance is high and is therefore considered as an insulator.

Diesel motor. Internal combustion engine that consumes heavy oil and operates by self-ignition of injected fuel, used in auxiliary vehicles.

Direction indicator. Luminous signal located on some masts of the fundamental signals of the platforms or in interstation, which indicates the track that the train will take at a fork. This signal is composed of a black board with a chain of lights that vary forming a figure that indicates the direction in which the route is formed.

Direction of travel. The direction in which a train travels according to the track it occupies. In the system, the direction of travel is to the right.

Disconnection. Interruption of the power supply circuit of an equipment or system.

Disconnector. Mechanical device responsible for opening or closing an electrical circuit.

Double filament lamp. Lamp with an auxiliary filament whose circuit is activated when the main filament fails. These lamps are used in the signaling of the Metro system.

Driver. Trained and certified employee to drive trains.


Educational messages. Messages that seek to prevent the infringement of a rule and build civic and respectful behavior among people.

Electro-pneumatic brake. Electrically controlled train braking operated by a compressed air system. It is generally used to stop passenger trains at speeds below 8 km/h, in case of failure of the electrodynamic brake and for emergency braking. For auxiliary vehicles it is the main brake.

Electrodynamic brake. Brake that uses the traction motors of the train as generators acting in service braking. The electrodynamic brake is permanently interrelated with the pneumatic brake, so that in order to stop the train or in case of a failure of the electrodynamic brake, the electro-pneumatic brake acts in its place.

Electromagnetic brake. Braking of a train that is obtained due to magnetic pressure of the brake shoes attached to the bogie frame against the rail head. The electromagnetic brake should only be used in emergencies.

Electromechanical platform. Technical installation located in the upper part of the station, where equipment and system elements necessary for the operation of the Cable are located.

Embankment. Road infrastructure, composed of compacted gravel and impermeable material on top, to allow drainage to the hydraulic structures.

Emergency braking. Full application of the brake due to unforeseen circumstances. It can be activated by the safety systems activated in the vehicle, by the driver with the red emergency button or with the 7th stage holding point (operating lever).

Emergency brigade. Group of employees trained and qualified to attend any urgency, risk or emergency in the company in a timely manner.

Emergency button (BDE). Red pushbutton located inside the train cars on the left side of each door. When pressed, it indicates on site and to the driver by means of an acoustic signal and visual indicators of an emergency in the car where it was pressed. This button should only be activated in case of emergency.

Emergency stop button (BPE). Pushbutton located at different points of the platforms in order to prevent the entry or departure of trains. It should only be activated in case of imminent danger and works only for passenger trains with LZB activated.

Emergency stop. Forced detention of a train due to irregularities in the service or force majeure.

Emergency. It is any partial or total disturbance inside or outside the System, where there is the possibility of causing injury, loss of human life, or damage to the Company's equipment and facilities.

Enclavamiento. Area of influence of the signaling installation that incorporates the equipment of the systems, signals, switches and all the infrastructure that is part of the metro system divided by zones that allow decentralized management of the operation.

Encoder. Machine that cuts and transfers the information about the type of ticket in the required conditions to be used in the turnstiles of the Metro.

Entry turnstile barrier. Equipment that constitutes a physical obstacle for the access of users; it allows controlling the entry of users and authorizing or not their entry to the Metro.

Evacuation of a station. The action of removing users from the station in an organized and safe manner, when there are irregularities in the service, and it is not possible to provide commercial service at that station.

Exit turnstile barrier. Equipment that constitutes a physical obstacle for the exit of users of the Medellin Metro System; it allows guide the flow of users leaving the system.

Extension. The suspension or fastening device used in catenary tensioning equipment.

External fault indicator. External light indicator of the train that serves to warn of a breakdown or emergency situation. Each car has one per side and is located in the center of the car.


Facilitator. A person who has the necessary conditions to impart theories and practices in terms of pedagogical knowledge and skills.

False occupation. Indication of a non-real occupancy on a track circuit, displayed on the dashboard, panoramic board and magnifying glass type images.

Fault. Irregularity or deficiency in the operation of technical equipment that prevents its normal development.

FGTS Loop. An "S" shaped copper electrical conductor that is connected between the two rails, the length of which depends on the frequency of the emitted signal. It behaves as an information transmitter and/or receiver device to determine the free or occupied track circuit.

Flange oiler. A mechanism located on trains to grease the inner face of the rails to prevent wear on the rails and wheel flanges.

Flanking protection. It consists of closing signals and positioning switches so that no train can enter a route from the possible lateral accesses. This until the route is satisfactorily completed. Signals, switches and derailers belong to the flanking protective devices.

Flap. A protruding ring on the inside edge of the wheel of a train, intended to prevent derailment.

Furniture. Set of elements installed to provide safety and comfort to customers during their passage through the station, as well as those arranged for commercial purposes to advertise or sell any type of service or product.


Garage. Place destined for the location of the booths at the end of the commercial service and where there are facilities for cleaning and maintenance of the booths.

Generator. Machine that converts the mechanical energy of a rotor into electrical energy.

Graphite. Conductive carbon material, located in the pantograph, its function is to capture the energy received from the contact wire, it is also found in the brushes of the electric motor, its function is to deliver energy to the moving part of the motor.

Group call. Communication established between a call center (PCC) and a group of interlocutors in a zone.


Head of Maneuvers (JMA). Shift Manager at Patio de Bello, responsible for the planning and coordination of all shunting movements at this site. He also updates the train parking plans, organizes the development of the shunting service and gives shunting orders to the Drivers, supervises the work plans of the personnel and reports to the maintenance personnel the failures and breakdowns that occur in the units.

Heel. Passing a train through a switch that is not in the correct position, taking it on its heel so that the wheel flange produces a displacement of the switch and the countershaft, preventing the train from derailing.

High voltage. Voltage over 600 volts.

Hola Metro Line Complaint Application. Internet software that allows the visualization of user complaints that the Hola Metro Line advisors are not able to resolve. These complaints are sent to the person in charge of the process involved, who must resolve them.

Hook. A device located at the end of the trains that serves to couple them, give continuity to the train and transmit the traction effort.

Hopper wagon. Auxiliary vehicle without its own traction used to transport bulk cargo.  It is used for permanent way maintenance work to transport ballast.  They are bogie cars with a manual brake that can be activated from each side of the vehicle.


Immobilization of a train. To remove a train from service due to a breakdown or other cause that so requires.

Incidence. An anomaly or disturbance that occurs in the System causing the alteration of the service without causing damage or significant damage.

Incident. Unexpected and risk event event that adversely influences the safety of the System and culminates in minor injuries to users and/or stakeholders, or minor damage to facilities, equipment or the environment. It does not result in fatalities. Under certain circumstances, it may result in an accident.

Incline in section insulators. Height difference in the section isolator skids with respect to the pantograph.

InfoMetro. Information boards located on the platform of some of the Metro stations, where information of interest to customers about the system and cultural events taking place in the city is published every two weeks.

Informative messages. Messages addressed to users to inform about special situations, operation contingencies, delays in commercial service, special events and others.

Infraestructure. Part of the track structure that supports the ballast and track armament.

Inspection workshop. Preventive maintenance site for passenger trains.

Inspection. Review that is made to an element, system, to determine if the operation is correct.

Insulating joint. Piece of different materials with which the ends of two rails are joined, clamped and insulated to prevent the passage of electric current in the track circuits. The circuit is delimited by insulating joints, which receive a voltage.

Insured itinerary. Track to be traveled secured from the control panel by the Station Operator, this occurs when there is a failure in the signaling system and the technique does not allow it to be done.

Interstation. A section of track between two stations.

Interval. Time lapse between the passage of one train and another at a given point.

Isolator. A device that does not allow the passage of electric current and serves as a mechanical support for conductive materials. In the case of catenary, it serves to isolate two sections from each other, the catenary from the mast that supports it or from one of its arms with respect to its energized parts.

Itinerary. The track to be traveled by a train, which is secured by the signaling technique by locating all the corresponding elements for the safe running of the trains. There are two types of itineraries:

Maneuver itinerary: A gear established on the basis of a shunting signal, indicating that a train must perform some maneuver or make the route with a maximum speed of 20 km/h. 
Train Itinerary: Set signal to signal plus a protection section, the route can be made by one train. 


Key switch. Master controller device in the cab of the train which, when the key is inserted and turned 90 degrees, allows the train to take command.

Kilowatt (watt): Power unit equivalent to 1000 W.


Lag screw. Rigid rail fastening consisting of a steel bolt that compresses the rail slide with the sleeper to which it is bolted.

Latch. Element that secures the doors when they are closed.

Level crossing. Crossing point between the railroad track and a road or highway at the same level.

Lift blocked section. Action taken by the Line Operator after an incident in an area is resolved and the track is cleared of trains, personnel and tools.

Lightning rod. Device for protection against high intensity electrical discharges, generally located on the upper parts of buildings, track sections and on the roof of passenger vehicles near the pantograph.

Line Operator (OPL). Metro employee in charge of controlling and supervising the development of the operation and train traffic by zones. He/she takes operation strategies in case of irregularities, informs operating personnel in a timely manner of any anomaly in the system, guarantees punctuality and fluidity in the system, coordinates the entry of personnel to the track both for maintenance and operations, manages the exit and entry of trains to Patio de Bello, supervises the management of the control panel when in station command operation mode and its main objective is the safety of the system.

Line-oriented simulation (SOL). Retraining method, by which a group of people recreate a typical or atypical situation of the system, with the use of a simulator.

Load measurements. Manual counting of users inside the train is carried out from the platform of the station corresponding to the most heavily loaded section and is performed per car per hour and per direction.

Locomotive. Auxiliary vehicle with its own traction intended to tow or push other vehicles.

Logical sequence of trains. The way in which the track circuits are occupied and vacated as a train travels in the normal direction of travel. If this sequence fails, the free track warning system produces false occupancies, both in the route sections and in the block sections.

Lookout. Person in charge of monitoring and warning of approaching trains in the work area, equipped with whistle or horn, flashlight, radio and other instruments to ensure safety.


Main switch. Two-position device that in case of overloads or short-circuits in the passenger train motors or catenary, automatically disconnects, protecting the train equipment.

Maintenance personnel. Group of people in charge of the maintenance, repairs and upkeep of Metro's installations, tracks and rolling stock.

Maintenance plan (SAP R/3). It defines the relevant elements to automatically generate preventive maintenance for the equipment. The maintenance plan links the operations, the frequency with which they are executed, the inputs and resources, which at the time of execution, become the maintenance order.

Maintenance. A set of periodic preventive, proactive, predictive and corrective operations carried out to ensure the operability of a piece of equipment or system.

Maneuver. Activity performed for the preparation and execution of maneuvering movements.

Maneuvering gear. Authorized travel in "maneuvering" driving mode with a maximum speed of 20 km/h (12 mph).

Maneuvering movement. All train runs within Patio de Bello (PBE), except those that are set up as train marches. Coupling and uncoupling belong to the shunting service.

Maneuverist. Driver of passenger vehicles for local service in Patio de Bello (PBE).

Manhole cover. Doors used to cover door opening mechanisms, cable ducts and lighting and ventilation system accessories. They are located on top of the doors and windows of passenger trains.

Mass of services. Total number of man-hours that a position requires to be covered to operate effectively. It is the result of adding up all the shifts required from Monday to Sunday.

Mast. Zinc-plated steel "H" shaped profile fixed to foundations, used to suspend the catenary.

Master controller. Board located in the cab of the train, which is used by the Conductor to operate the train.

Maximum load. Number of users passing through the most heavily loaded section during the rush hour and is expressed in passengers per hour and direction. This parameter is the basis for determining the number of trains required in a rush hour, and, consequently, the required train fleet.

Maximum train capacity. Maximum number of users that a train can carry and results from multiplying the chosen density by the area of the train and adding the number of seats in the train.

Mesh door. Access by means of which authorized personnel can enter level tracks at interstations.

Mesh. Metallic netting used for the enclosure of the railroad and other installations.

Message. Communication that takes place between a sender and a receiver.

Metro Employee. A person who holds a specific position in Medellin Metro System.

METRO police. Professionals of the National Police at the service of the Company, with different grades and positions.

Mileage: Length of a trip or total distance traveled by a vehicle expressed in kilometers.

Motor car disconnector. A device used to disconnect or isolate a power car on a unit in the event of a fault. Located on each power car, on the right side of the instrument panel of the trains.

Motor car. End car of a unit, which in addition to having a passenger compartment, also has a driver's cab and traction equipment.


Niche. Cavity or space located at the bottom of the platforms in the stations.

Non-paying zone. Area of the station where the point of sale is located.

Non-routine operation. Execution of train movements not foreseen in the timetable, on the lines in the event of incidents or accidents; in Patio de Bello these are unplanned maneuvers, due to technical or operational irregularities.


Object retrieval arm. Hand tool equipped with a clamp at the tip, used to retrieve objects dropped on the track at stations.

Obsolescence. Assets that fall into disuse due to age or technological innovations.

Occupied cabin. Cab of the unit's power car, in which the driver has command and control over the train.

On-line check (in training). Evaluation process by means of which an instructor or a representative of the area to which the person being evaluated is linked, through questions and observation of his/her performance on the job, determines the level of competence of the person being evaluated.

Operating lever. A T-shaped master controller element coupled to a potentiometer that continuously generates the reference values for train running and braking. If the operating mode selector is set to zero, this lever is locked.

Operation and Work Instruction during construction works (IOT). Document in which the programming of the different works to be carried out on the track, or in substations and signaling booths both on the lines and in the Bello Yard, specifying the area, name of the person in charge, time and place of the work, is consigned.

Operation development. How users are transported safely and reliably.

Operation in parts of the line. Commercial service provided to users in one section of the system because the rest of the system is out of service due to some irregularity.

Operation planning. Establishment of the program for the development of the operation in the medium and long term.

Operational clearance. A route taken by passenger vehicles (units) before starting commercial service to ensure that the track, catenary and gauges are in optimum condition.

Operational strategies. Measures taken to guarantee the continuity of commercial service in the event of any irregularity.

Operations Supervisor (SOP). Employee in charge of controlling the development of the system operation. In case of incidents or accidents, he/she takes the strategies to continue the service, guaranteeing the security of the system.

Operative personnel. All employees whose function is to contribute directly to the development of the system's operation establish direct contact with users and/or with the company's fixed assets: trains and equipment, and are therefore required to wear the Company's uniform.

Overtaking a sign. Action taken by the driver of a train when passing a signal or occupying the track circuit following the destination signal.

Overvoltage discharge device. Element in charge of deriving overvoltage peaks. It is located in catenary equipment and substations.


PAC – Customer Service Point. Offices located in some stations where services are provided to customers on a personalized basis.

Paid zone: Rear station entrance area the area of the turnstile barriers, where access to platforms, platforms, technical rooms and offices are located.

Painting plant. Workshop used for painting work on trains.

Pantograph brush. Carbon agglomerated rod or similar that allows the passage of electric current from the catenary to the train's motors.

Pantograph equipment. Instrument driven by the air coming from the main pipe to lift the pantograph, in case of failure of the previous one it is possible to drive it by means of a foot pump.

Pantograph. Element in charge of capturing the energy from the contact wire for the traction system. It is made up of mechanical arms, electro-pneumatically driven, and is located on the roof of the motor car, above the driver's cab.

Parking brake. A mechanism that stops a train by means of a brake cylinder acting on the brake shoes and exerting pressure on the wheels. It is operated by the driver when a train is parked.

Partially damaged train. Train composed of several units in which one of them cannot or must not be moved by its own traction.

Passenger train command and control system. Set of elements and circuits used to control the optimal condition of the train.

Passenger train driver. Employee authorized to drive passenger trains with or without passengers.

Passenger train engine. Electric motor in which the applied voltage is direct current of 750 V (DC) each and are used as a generator for the service braking of trains. There are two motors per bogie connected in series.

Patio de Bello (PBE). Plant located in the municipality of Bello for the parking of trains, with facilities for maintenance and upkeep of trains and railroad installations.

PCR - Person with Reduced Communication. Refers to people who are affected by physical barriers or the performance of daily actions due to a reduction in their ability to communicate for various reasons (visual, hearing, oral, mixed, among others).

PDV - Sale point. Computer equipment dedicated to the sale of loads and products through interaction with the Civic contactless card. It is composed of:

  • Touch-sensitive monitor 
  • CPU 
  • User display 
  • Mouse 
  • Contactless card reader 
  • Printer, for receipts and invoices 

Pendola. Bronze cable of 10mm2 section, used to suspend the contact wire of the supporting cables. It is also used to allow the circulation of current through them.

Pendulum. Device that detects on the track the real value of cant or transverse leveling defects. The tamping machine has two of these devices.

Pergola bridge. Structure made of beams and columns, between Envigado and Ayurá stations, allows the crossing of Line A over the Medellín River.

Pergola. A set of parallel gantries on which a bridge or other element is supported.

Permanent track. Part of the track structure, consisting of: rail, sleeper, ballast and subbase.

Permissive signal. Signal in running position, i.e. it allows the train to move forward.

Personnel draisine. Auxiliary vehicle equipped with diesel engine; used to transport maintenance personnel and equipment to work sites.

Physical installations. Spaces that make up the infrastructure for the provision of services to customers, for the operation of the station and the use of personnel associated with the provision of the service.

Pitchfork. Element or tool used to move the ballast.

Pivot. A short axle that centers a part in a rotating motion around it. In passenger trains it is the one that transmits the forces produced by the displacements between the body and the bogie. The pivot is located in the central part of the bogie.

Place. To locate or place in a single position, an equipment, the needle of a switch, the aspect of a signal, switch, disconnector, etc., by means of an interlocking system.

Platform (Metrocable). Place where users enter (boarding) and exit (de-boarding) the cabins.

Platform A. Concrete structure located at the stations next to the ascending track. It allows the entrance and exit of users going north-south or west-east.

Platform B. Concrete structure located at the stations next to the descending track. It allows the entrance and exit of users going south-north or east-west.

Platform wagon. Auxiliary vehicle without its own traction that can be used to transport materials or equipment for system maintenance.  They are used in maintenance work or incidents in railway installations. These are bogie cars that use a manual brake to secure the vehicle when it is stopped.

Platform. Concrete structure located at stations that allows users to safely board and alight from trains.

PMR - Person with Reduced Mobility. Refers to people who have reduced mobility and encounter difficulties in overcoming physical barriers. This term includes the handicapped, the elderly, the recently operated or convalescing from an illness, the injured, etc.

Pole. Telescopic tube made of insulating material, equipped with a clamp that allows the connection of the catenary to the rail by means of a cable that short-circuits it and uses it as a safety device to counteract any accidental tensioning of the line while working on it.

Portico. Catenary equipment consisting of two masts parallel to each other, which are connected by a lower and upper transverse messenger cable; used to suspend the catenary for several tracks.

Position. Place or geographic site where a train, track element or any personnel of the Company is located.

Pothole. Specific defect in the leveling of the track.

Power supply. A system that provides constant electrical energy to power a piece of equipment or a system.

Primary suspension. System formed by the set of mechanical elements that cushion the forces transmitted by the box to the bogie and the axles of the wheels.

Progress curve. Variation of the speed presented by a train in a space/time, determined by the track conditions.

Protective flanking device. Technical device of a train or shunting route, which protects train gears against other gears and shunting movements, using signals, switches and derailers.

Pulley wheel. Microswitch whose function is to close the door circuit, indicating in the driver's cab when one or more doors are open.

Pulley. Element that transmits the movement of the motors to the cable and configures a circulating system. They are located in the drive and return stations.

Pushed train. A train is considered to be pushed if the control and traction are directed from a cab other than the head of the train. In a pushed train running in line or in Patio de Bello, the driver's assistant is needed at the head of the train, to observe the track to be traveled and to communicate to the driver in command the particularities about the track to be traveled.

Put on the rails. To remount the wheels of a train on the rails, for this purpose the derailing equipment is necessary.


Rail break. Fracture of the rail caused by the evolution of a crack or by wheel flats and tearing caused by slippage at the head of the rail.

Rail contact area. Part of the rail head of the order of 1 cm2, which comes into contact with the wheels of the trains, also called tread.

Rail crack. Crack or fissure that occurs in the rail.

Rail grinding. Operation intended to polish and restore the profile of the rail head.

Rail lapping machine. Tool equipped with a motor that, by means of a longitudinal oscillating movement, grinds and polishes the head of the rail. It can be done with a special vehicle called Plasser grinder or with manual equipment.

Rail skid. Part of the rail that rests on the sleepers through an intermediate saddle plate and is held by a clip. It is also known as the rail base.

Rail skid. The lower part of the rail that comes into contact with the sleeper, to which it is attached by means of fasteners and saddle plates.

Rail welding. Technique for joining the ends or edges of two rails, using the aluminothermic welding process.

Rail. Metal bar that forms part of the permanent way on which the vehicle's wheel rests, and is made up of head, web and skid.

Railing equipment. Equipment used to track a train, consisting of hydraulic devices, pumps, jacks and dragging equipment.

Railway installation. Set of buildings, devices, apparatus and systems that allow the Metro service.

Re-grading. Machining process to restore a metal part (rail, wheel) to its original shape.

Rectifier group. Electrical equipment that converts alternating current into direct current to feed the catenary.

Reductive. Element that allows the speed variation from the motor to be transmitted to the pulley.

Related businesses. All those businesses that generate income for the Company, apart from those perceived by the commercialization of the Essential Business (transport service). These businesses arise from the use of the Company's machinery and equipment, combined with the knowledge acquired from the work carried out during the design, construction and start-up of the System.

Relay. A device that opens or closes several electrical contacts according to the excitation condition of its core.

Relief driver. Passenger train driver, who at a station, under a stipulated procedure, replaces the incumbent driver.

Relief motor. It is the one that allows the evacuation of passengers on the line, in case of power failure or main engine operation.

Remote control system. Electrical devices that allow remote control of track elements from a control station.

Remove. To release a piece of equipment or element that was immobilized by a mechanical or electrical interlock.

Repair workshop. Place used for corrective maintenance and routine overhauls.

Resources. Necessary elements that contribute to the strengthening of the institutional image and the safety of the company's employees.

Retraining. Review of acquired knowledge performed by operational and maintenance personnel to preserve it without distortion and to maintain competencies.

Return driver. Passenger train driver who assists with the conduct of return trips at terminal stations.

Return installation. Area in which it is possible to change the train's direction of travel by changing the track through the switches, there are 2 types of installations:

  • Previous return installation: When the train makes the track change before the platform. 
  • Post-return installation: When the train makes the track change after passing the platform. 

Return. Change the direction of a train.

Reverse direction of travel. Direction of travel opposite to that normally established for a particular road.

Reverse. A train running in the opposite direction to its normal direction.

Road camber. The difference in elevation between the running surface of two rails of the same track section within a curve, to prevent a train from running off the track due to centrifugal force.

Road danger zone: Area where personnel are exposed to danger from moving vehicles. It includes the track and reaches up to the safety clearance gauge.  It extends laterally up to 1.75 m from the center of the track on the viaduct and 3.10 m on the outer side of curves on level track.

Road to be traveled. A section of track from a point of origin (start of train running) to a point of destination (end of train running).  This section is considered safe for running when it is free of obstacles.

Rolling test. Test that is performed when proceeding to solve a failure of applied brakes, where the driver, before starting to move again, allows the train to move freely. To do so, he takes the driving lever to a traction point and when he starts moving, he lowers the lever to the zero point, so that the train moves and observes if the vehicle still has brakes applied on the damaged car.

Route plan. Diagram representing in tabular form the entire route of a train in a day's operation. It shows in proper order the departure and arrival times of passenger trains at each return  installation.

Routine operation. Execution of train runs foreseen in the timetable.

Running-over. Accident in which a train runs over a person(s) located in the danger zone of the track.


Safety gauge. Space on the road outside the danger zones used to move personnel entering the road.

Safety regulations. Rules that guarantee safety in the system are mandatory for both users and Metro personnel.

Sales Informant: Person in charge of attending to customers at the System's ticket offices.

Seat plate. A rubber or polyethylene element that is installed between the rail and the sleeper to hold the rail in place and reduce sleeper wear. It also serves as insulation and absorbs vibrations between the rail and the sleeper.

Secondary suspension. System consisting of a set of pneumatic elements (two pneumatic cushions per bogie) that cushion the relative movements between the body and the bogie and on which the vehicle body rests.

Sectioning the coupling. It consists of manipulating the levers of the automatic central stop couplings, so that they pass from horizontal to vertical position on both sides of the couplings that join the two units. The mechanical-pneumatic coupling is thus active, but the units are electrically independent.

Selective call. Comunicación que se establece entre un punto de llamada y un solo receptor.Communication established between a calling point and a single receiver.

Service diagram. Graphical scheme of the mass of services, which shows in a comprehensive way the number of operating hours that need to be covered by a work center, including the start and end times of each of the shifts that are designed and the work center that they cover.

Service door. Locking mechanism located on the side of the turnstile area, operated from the demand desk and used by authorized personnel.

Service interruption. Temporary pause in service, due to technical failures in trains, in the Metro installations or due to security problems in the surrounding area.

Sheave train. Each of the towers that support the cable transport system.

Signal carrier. Device located on the posts of the basic signals, used to locate some signals to inform about specific train running conditions and track work.

Signal dependence. Principle of railway safety technology according to which the route switches and flanking protection elements are dependent on the basic signal, so that the signal can only show a running aspect when these elements are in their intended position and the track to be traveled is clear.

Signal in basic position. Signal in stop position ordering the train to stop.

Signal unblocking. Release the control circuit of a signal so that it can change the appearance.

Signal. Visual representation of a warning or status that allows traffic control.

Signposting. A set of signals that transmit orders and information from the track, stations and trains to ensure the movement of trains. It is composed of techniques, systems and equipment that ensure the operation of a device.

Simulation. Program designed to represent a routine, non-routine or emergency situation in real operating conditions, with the objective of strengthening the competence of the operating and maintenance personnel, also evaluating the procedures, standards and technical aspects in which the practice is developed.

Simulator. Apparatus or installation that reproduces the operation and physical circumstances of a machine, vehicle or system, thus obtaining a functional relationship with reality.

Sippling. Displacement of the braked wheel of the train on the running surface of the rail.

Siwa Group. A group of people belonging to different rescue agencies and the Metro emergency brigade, specialized in rescue at heights, available for emergencies in Cables.

Sleeper. Wood, metal or concrete element (beam), on which the rails are bracing, constituting a link between rail and ballast. It has two functions: to maintain the track gauge and to transmit the stresses received by the underlying ballast.

Smoke evaluation center. Electronic fire protection system, activated by smoke that interrupts a beam of light coming from sensors located inside the passenger trains; when activated, it sounds the train horn constantly and gives a luminous indication in the driver's cab.

Speakers. A communication system that allows the transmission of announcements to customers. There are two types of loudspeakers in the stations: gooseneck loudspeakers and wall loudspeakers.

Special events. Sports, cultural and recreational programming, which takes place in the surroundings of the System.

Station Operator (OES). Officer responsible for the administrative and operational management of a station, as well as for user service and overseeing compliance with the different contracts and agreements with other entities. On the operational side, he/she is the on-site coordinator for the application of all procedures established for the safe operation of the system. In stations where there is a control panel, he is the operator of the signaling installations located at his work station.

Station. Company installation with platform where users board or disembark from trains or cabins.

Stopping time. The purpose of the stay on the platform of a passenger train, as foreseen in the itinerary, is the exit and entrance of users to the trains.

Stopping. Application of the braking system to slow down or stop the train.

Supplier evaluation. Questions that are asked to monitor the performance of suppliers of goods and/or services.

Supply line. Electrical conductor that connects electrical substations to the general power distribution network.

Swing door. Locking mechanism located at the ends of the platform, which allows authorized personnel to enter the track or zero point.

Swinging. Lateral movement of a vehicle caused by track misalignment or pneumatic problems in the train.

Switch motor. Motor used to move the two needles of a centralized switch gear between their right or left end positions.

Switches (Metrocable). Segment of the moving rail used to make track changes in each cabin.

Switches track heel. It is a directional reference of a track shifter, in which the displacement is made from the heart towards the needles.

Switches. Track device that allows the splitting of the rail strands of a track by moving the switches to allow a train to pass from one track to the other.  There are 2 types of switches in the Medellin Metro System:

  • Centralized track switch: track switch operated by remote control from an interlocking, Central Control Station (PCC) or Control Tower (TRC) 
  • Manual track shifter: manually positioned track shifter, by means of the track shifter operating lever. It is only found in Patio de Bello (PBE). 

Switchs unblocking. Release the circuit of the switch motor to be able to move the derailleur needles.


Tail cabin. Unoccupied cabin, located in the opposite direction of the train. The entrance to this cabin is restricted during the operation and can only be boarded with authorization from the Central Control Station.

Tail car. Last car in the composition of a passenger train, in the direction of travel.

Tampers. Automatic or manual machine used for ballast tamping and rail alignment.

Technical operator (OPT). Metro employee in charge of the supervision and control of the electrical supply system, which through a remote control system, guarantees a reliable and permanent power supply to both the catenary and the passenger substations, is also in charge of the statistical analysis of energy, and of managing with the maintenance personnel the solution of irregularities that affect the operation of trains.

Temporary Single Track (VUT). Arrangement of a track for the running of a train in both directions.

Temporary system closure. Action taken in the event that service cannot be provided in one, several stations or in the entire System, either due to internal or external causes that affect METRO's facilities temporarily.

Tensile test. A test performed to observe the operability of a train after an incident, the purpose of which is to verify the power in the motors and the release of the brakes. It is performed by bringing the lever to a traction point and immediately to zero.

Test lamp. Pushbutton on the train control panel whose function when pressed is to indicate the status of the luminous warnings in the train cab.

Test route. The route a train travels in order to check the condition of the track or the vehicle.

Test to control panels. Verification of the operation of the control panel in interlocked stations.

Ticket office opening hours table. Record of the hours of service provided by each point of sale in the system.

Tied train. Train that receives traction order, releases the brakes, but it is felt that the train does not move freely, therefore it does not reach its final speed in time.

Time table. Detailed table showing the departure times of trains from return facilities and stations. Allows to calculate train delays or overtakings.

Top guide. Structural element located at the rear end of passenger train bodies. That is, the opposite side of the front of motor cars or the ends of trailer cars.

Tow. The action of pulling a vehicle that is without, or not dependent on, its own traction by another vehicle with its own traction.

Track A (Ascending Track). In Medellín Metro System it refers to the train track with origin in Niquía and destination Itagüí in Line A and in Line B the origin in San Javier and destination San Antonio B.

Track B (Descending Track). In Medellin Metro System, it refers to the train track with origin in Itagüí and destination Niquía in Line A and in Line B the origin in San Antonio B and destination San Javier.

Track blockage. The action of isolating a section of track, where train marching or shunting movements can only be carried out with special authorization. It is applied in cases of trains stopped in the area, deficiencies in the facilities or due to track work.

Track deformation. Defect in the alignment or leveling of the rails due to twisting or displacement caused by the efforts induced mainly by the passage of trains, or by high temperatures, as they cannot expand freely.

Track gauge. Measure between the internal faces of the heads of both rails, this measurement must be constant.

Track inspection. This task involves the review and verification of the elements and geometry of the track and its gauges in order to rule out objects, persons, explosive devices that may generate risk with the passage of trains.

Track Inspector. Person in charge of inspecting the track.

Track level. A surveying instrument used to measure differences in height or elevation between two points.

Track settlement. Permanent deformation of the track structure below its normal level due to the passage of the train.

Track walk. Safety clearance where people can pass through without danger from the movement of trains.

Track welding equipment. Set of apparatus and tools used in the aluminothermic welding of rails on the track.

Traction motor. Machine that converts any energy into mechanical energy. Those of the auxiliary vehicles are diesel engines.

Traction. The action and effect of moving or dragging a train on the track.

Traffic breakers. Physical barrier located at certain points to prevent the passage of users.

Trailer car. Intermediate car that joins the two power cars of a unit, it does not have a driver's cab or traction equipment.

Train cabin. Compartment located at the end of a motor car, it contains all the elements, devices and controls necessary for driving a train.

Train enlistment. Checking of the main equipment of the train and its general condition, which is performed by the driver before starting the commercial operation with a vehicle. The enlistment time is less than the train preparation time, since it is not as thorough and the certificate is not filled out, but the readiness certificate is checked.

Train evacuation. It consists of removing the users of a train in an organized and safe manner. It is evacuated when there are technical irregularities in a train or in the track to be traveled, the evacuation can be on the platform or if necessary in interstation.

Train force. The action of moving a damaged train by exerting force from the rear with another vehicle. Used to clear the track so that the damaged train can be taken to the nearest return facility or to the PBE (Patio de Bello).

Train head lights. A set of lights located on the front exterior of the trains that are used by the driver to observe the track in poor visibility conditions, when a train is approaching, and at night, as long as they are in control.

Train head stopping point. Place or site where the train must stop in compliance with its itinerary.

Train headlamp. Train front light located on the upper part of the units and auxiliary vehicles. It serves to illuminate the track at night or when visibility is poor.

Train preparation. Work performed by the Conductor to the train in Patio de Bello before leaving for the line. The functionality of all the train's equipment is checked according to the regulatory standards of the Manual of Operation of the vehicles.

Train tail lights. Two fixed red lights permanently located at the rear of the trains, indicating the tail end of the vehicles.

Train ventilation channel. Semicircular polyester panels, with a straight area incorporating aluminum deflector grilles, which distribute the air in the train compartment.

Train washing machine. Equipment used to externally wash passenger trains. This process is carried out when the train travels through the train at low speed.

Train. A series of vehicles coupled together and towed by one or more control cars or motor cars. They carry users or equipment from one point to another on a railroad track.

Trench. Excavation made in the ground in order to examine and repair the trains underneath.

Turning loop. Road in Patio de Bello that allows reversing the units.

Turnstail. Physical barrier that divides the paid zone from the non-paid zone, validates the means of payment to allow users to enter and exit the system.

Turnstile counter. Electromechanical device that registers the number of user entries through a turnstile.

Typical working day. Business day from Monday to Friday.


Ultrasonic inspection. A check using ultrasonic wave emitting equipment to determine if an element, for example a shaft or a rail, has cracks imperceptible to the human eye.

Unblock. To release a control circuit to allow its movement or change of state; applied in switch gear, signals, etc.

Uncouple. The action of separating two trains that are connected at least mechanically and pneumatically.

Under frame. Lower part of the train.

Undulatory wear. A type of rail wear characterized by the presence of a series of deformations of variable wavelength at the head of the rail, detectable to the naked eye by the presence of bright stripes (ridges) interspersed with lines of normal color (valleys).

Unified Command Post (PMU). Specific site at the accident site where each of the coordinators of the external agencies supporting an accident meet and where all their actions are centralized and coordinated in order to optimize their support.

Unit. Passenger vehicle consisting of 3 cars; in the center a trailer car and at the ends motor cars.

User (customer) A person who acquires the right to be transported on the System by purchasing a trip.

User flow. Number of users who use the transportation service offered by Medellin Metro System in a given period of time (day, week, month, etc.)

User regulations. Rules and regulations for the proper use of the Metro system, which must be followed by all persons using this means of transportation. The Rules and Regulations are posted in visible and frequented places in each of the stations.

User regulations. Rules that a person must comply with when entering the system to ensure a comfortable and safe journey.


Vacancy. This refers to the position or position available in the Company's authorized staff. This may originate from the dismissal of an employee or the creation of a position in the area that requires it (in the specific case of Metro, the position plan is authorized by the Company's Board of Directors).

Vehicle box. Superstructure made up of aluminum profiles and sheets, mounted on a frame for transporting users.

Vehicle frame. A structure of metal beams that rests on the vehicle's suspension and supports the body and mechanical elements of the vehicle.

Vehicle gauge. The space comprising the width and height of rail vehicles on a straight track with the vehicle stopped. It is also known as static gauge.

Ventilation in passenger trains. Continuous air renewal system inside the units.

Viaduct. Elevated track section.

Visual inspection. The purpose of this inspection is to determine at a glance whether the inspected item is complete and undamaged, and it is carried out at regular intervals.


Walk in sight. Route made by the driver observing the track and the catenary or according to the line operator's instructions. For this route the speed is between 5 and 40 km/h in order to be able to stop the train at any obstacle.

Wheel profiling machine. Electromechanical machine used to recover the profile of the wheels through a turning process.

Wheel. Circular-shaped element, made of solid material turned in the shape of a cone and finished on the inner side with a flange that works on the inside of the rail to guide the vehicle on the track.

Yard Operator (OPA). Metro employee in charge of controlling and supervising train movements at Patio de Bello, organizing the entry and exit of trains to and from the line and to the inspection and overhaul shops, controlling the control panel, authorizing the entry of maintenance and driving personnel onto the track, as well as providing support to the maneuvering head.

Yellow line. International safety sign that limits the danger zone along the platform of the stations, in order to prevent incidents or accidents with trains.

Zero level (Point Zero). Area of the stations located at track level where some technical rooms, first aid rooms and kitchenettes are located.

Zero point. Station area located at track level where some technical rooms, first aid rooms and kitchenettes are located.